Home » Car-dependency » Page 2

Tag: Car-dependency

Poundbury

Transport for New Homes Award: Poundbury

Poundbury is an urban extension to the Dorset county town of Dorchester, built according to the principles of Charles, Prince of Wales, on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Poundbury was highly commended in the Transport for New Homes Awards 2019. Judge Jenny Raggett, who visited the development, tells us why.

One of the few properly walkable places we found, with a full diversity of community provision integrated with new homes, was Poundbury in Dorset.

Although the architectural feel of Poundbury might not be to everybody’s liking, as a greenfield urban extension it is highly unusual in its achievement of a new walkable community, much along the lines of the visions we have seen for the new ‘garden settlements’ that the government hope we will build. Poundbury is green with urban trees and parks. There is a mix of all kinds of homes including rented and affordable accommodation, with offices, cafes, pubs, small shops, a garden centre, supermarket, community facilities and school all within the actual fabric of the town. There are over 2,000 people working in Poundbury and this daytime influx of people, in addition to the 3,500 residents themselves, creates a good footfall during the day for the many eating establishments and shops close by.

We have seen so many greenfield sites that are essentially housing estates with little else apart from a primary school and perhaps a convenience store by the ring road. There is normally a very large supermarket by a roundabout out of town, with a large car park, and the business park off another large junction also comes with a large car park. The nature of destinations as much as the housing itself tell the story. Out of town retail, employment and leisure on separate parcels of land mean driving everywhere.

Poundbury is completely different in this respect. The garden centre with its cafe and the supermarket are right in town, and so is everything else. You can collect the children from the school and walk to the supermarket or other shops; you can go to one of the parks or have tea. If you work in one of the offices or factories you can enjoy a meal out at lunch or pop into the shops without jumping into the car. Walkability is a lot to do with having things to actually walk to – and in the case of Poundbury there are many.

Poundbury

Perhaps it helps also that walking around Poundbury is interesting compared to the other urban extensions we have seen. Different views greet the pedestrian and the varicose nature of the streets beckons you on to see what is around the corner. The number and variety of urban trees very much add to the public realm.

Many urban extensions are cut off from their parent towns so that you can’t reach them on foot or cycle along overlooked streets. In the case of Poundbury, great care has been taken to integrate the new area with its parent town Dorchester so that streets join up – an entirely different model from the roundabout and link road concept so often seen in the ‘classic’ urban extension. What this means is that the new area and its shops and its many community facilities are accessible to a wider population, not just to Poundbury residents.

What about public transport? If you come from a small town in the rural south west as I do, the bus services in and out of Poundbury seem remarkable. The number 10 bus which goes between Weymouth, Dorchester and Poundbury (at Mansell Square) runs 7 days a week at turn-up-and-go frequencies, and continues into late evening, albeit at reduced frequency. Other buses go through Poundbury itself, providing services to Dorchester (half hourly) and to Bridport and Axminster (2 hourly), though not in the evenings or on Sundays. There are two railway stations in Dorchester and if you don’t want to take the bus, there is always the option of cycling to them from Poundbury (10 minutes) or you might enjoy the half hour walk with pavements all the way.

For a greenfield urban extension, Poundbury is eminently liveable; for this it earned the high commendation of our judges.

Poundbury bus

Responsible for Poundbury:
Estate Director: Ben Murphy
Masterplanner: Léon Krier
Architects: Ben Pentreath of Ben Pentreath Ltd and George Saumarez Smith of Adam Architecture
Highways Consultant: Andrew Cameron of Andrew Cameron & Associates
Council: Dorset Council (from April 2019, previously West Dorset District Council)

Bath Riverside and Royal Arsenal Riverside

Transport for New Homes Award 2019: winners announced

The winners of the Transport for New Homes Award 2019 are:

  • Royal Arsenal Riverside, south east London (metropolitan winner)
  • Bath Riverside, Bath (non-metropolitan winner)

The first ever Transport for New Homes Awards, run in partnership with the Transport Planning Society as part of its Transport Planning Day, set out to celebrate recent large developments which have been located and designed so that residents do not need cars to live a full life.

“The housing we build today will determine our travel patterns for decades to come, impacting on climate change, air pollution, public health and social cohesion. All too often we see new housing built around car use, but in Bath Riverside and Royal Arsenal Riverside real attention has been paid to walking, cycling and public transport, giving residents real travel choices and a good quality of life. All new developments should be located so that people have a choice as to how they travel, and provide good walking, cycling and public transport access to daily activities.”
– Lynda Addison OBE, award judge

Metropolitan winner: Royal Arsenal Riverside

Royal Arsenal Riverside is a large regeneration project in Woolwich, south east London, being undertaken by Berkeley Homes (East Thames). It has excellent public transport links and a cycle route into central London along the riverfront. The central parts of the site are pedestrianised and walking is encouraged by the peaceful public realm. Car parking is hidden away in basements; there is no on-street parking with the exception of some disabled bays and car club spaces. There are a number of electric car charging points publicly available on site. The site includes many amenities, all of which reduce the need to travel.

Non-metropolitan winner: Bath Riverside

Bath Riverside was built by Crest Nicholson on the site of a disused gasworks in the centre of Bath. Located on the banks of the River Avon, it’s well situated for walking to shops, entertainment, the railway station, bus station and bus stops. Car parking is limited and the public realm is shaped around walking. The development is also highly accessible via public transport, with local bus stops a few minutes’ walk away. A free one month bus pass is on offer to every Bath Riverside household, as well as free car club membership and a £100 cycle voucher.

Judges also highly commended Poundbury, an urban extension to the Dorset county town of Dorchester, for creating a walkable and pleasant greenfield urban extension with a range of small and large shops, many community facilities and employment for over 2,000 people.

Royal Arsenal Riverside

Transport for New Homes Award: shortlist announced

Over the summer, we asked members of the public, professionals and developers to nominate recent UK developments of more than 500 homes for the Transport for New Homes Award 2019, run in partnership with the Transport Planning Society as part of its Transport Planning Day. We wanted to celebrate places that buck the trend of car-dependency: recent, large developments which have been located and designed so that residents do not need cars to live a full life.

The way we combine new homes with transport will determine how we travel and therefore the way we live for decades to come. Cutting back on car use and instead being able to walk, cycle or use public transport on a daily basis is all part of the lower carbon and healthier lifestyle that many people aspire to. Today we’re pleased to shortlist five developments that buck the trend for out-of-town car-dominated estates, places where real attention has been paid to sustainable transport and quality of life.”
Jenny Raggett, one of the award judges

Today at a Parliamentary Reception hosted by Lilian Greenwood MP, Chair of the Transport Select Committee, we were delighted to announce the shortlist:

Bath Riverside

Bath Riverside

Bath Riverside [above] is a development of apartments and some town houses built by Crest Nicholson on the site of a disused gasworks in the centre of Bath. Planned to comprise 2000+ homes, its density is sufficient to support local facilities and public transport. In fact the development has contributed substantially to public transport improvements in the wider area and to new local pedestrian links. Located on the banks of the River Avon, it is well situated for walking to shops, entertainment, the railway station, bus station and bus stops. Car parking is limited and the public realm is shaped around walking; good quality and direct pedestrian routes are located across the development. The development is also highly accessible via public transport, with local bus stops a few minutes’ walk away. A free one month bus pass is on offer to every Bath Riverside household, as well as free car club membership and a £100 cycle voucher.

Kidbrooke Village

Kidbrooke Village

Developed by the Berkeley Group, Kidbrooke Village [above] in the London Borough of Greenwich will have 4,800 homes when complete; it currently comprises 1,300. The housing density, at 165 dph, is much higher than in urban extensions or new towns. Residents here are not automatically expected to use a car as their main form of transport, and not all of the flats come with parking spaces. There is good public transport access, including a rail station within the site, which is receiving a new station building; regular buses pass through the site. Direct walking and cycling routes have been put in place, and old pedestrian subways replaced with surface-level crossings. There is also a good amount of green space in the parks bordering the new flats. The developers are working together with London Wildlife Trust to improve these spaces for wildlife and local residents. There is even a temporary village centre, to provide shops and services for residents while waiting for the permanent facilities to be built.

Kilnwood Vale

Kilnwood Vale Phase 1 and 2

Kilnwood Vale [above] is a major urban extension to Crawley, which will contain up to 2,500 dwellings. The first phases are now largely occupied and include about 900 dwellings. Typically on such developments residents in the early stages are very poorly served by bus, and sometimes not at all. Crest Nicholson has worked with the local bus operator to allow an existing bus service passing the site to serve the initial phases of the development. The bus route offered to phase 1 provides regular links not just to Crawley but also Horsham, and early and late journeys also serve rail commuters. Crest agreed to a temporary bus turning arrangement and established a high-quality shelter with Real-time Passenger Information at the site entrance, thus signalling to prospective purchasers that a high quality public transport choice is available.

Poundbury

Poundbury

Poundbury [above] is an urban extension to the Dorset county town of Dorchester, built according to the principles of Charles, Prince of Wales, on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. It is currently home to approximately 3,800 people. The compartmentalisation of retail and business into out-of-town areas has been avoided: Poundbury has residential and commercial buildings, offices, shops, pubs, cafes, communal areas and even a cereal producing factory right in the town centre. The community provides employment for over 2,300 people, and over a quarter of commuters here walk to work. The walking environment is varied and green, with urban trees and planted areas planned very early on, all part of an overall design and layout designed specifically for walkability. Parking is kept off the streets in parking courts to the rear of houses. Public transport to Poundbury was considered before development. Two railway stations are within a 20 minute walk. A new electric bus service connects Poundbury with the centre of Dorchester and Dorchester South railway station. The number 10 bus from Dorchester to Weymouth starts and finishes at Poundbury, and the X51 from Dorchester to Bridport and Axminster also passes through the development.

Royal Arsenal Riverside

Royal Arsenal Riverside

Royal Arsenal Riverside [above] is a large regeneration project in Woolwich, south east London, being undertaken by Berkeley Homes (East Thames). It currently comprises 3,200 homes; once completed it will have over 5,000. The new Crossrail Woolwich station is being delivered on site. Woolwich Arsenal station is also nearby, as well as more than 10 different bus routes, and there is a Thames Clipper Pier at the centre of the site for a boat service into central London. There is a cycle route into central London along the riverfront and all homes have secure cycle parking. The central parts of the site are pedestrianised and all roads open to vehicles have safe pedestrian paths. Walking is encouraged by the peaceful public realm, which includes benches and green spaces. Car parking is hidden away in the basements of the buildings; there is no on-street parking with the exception of some disabled bays and car club spaces. There are a number of electric car charging points publicly available on site. The site includes many amenities such as cafes, pubs, food shops and sports and leisure facilities, and there are light industrial units to the east of the site which accommodate larger employers and local start-ups, all of which reduce the need to travel.

We are now visiting the shortlisted developments and assessing them against the Transport for New Homes Checklist. The winner will be announced on Transport Planning Day (20 November).

Whichever development is chosen, it will have much to teach us about how new housing can address climate change and sustainable travel as well as providing good, healthy living environments.

It’s difficult to produce sustainable travel patterns if you don’t build in the right places

Guest blog by Gordon Stokes, Visiting Research Associate at Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford

Finding the right places to locate large numbers of new homes and jobs in crowded areas of the South East will need great care if we’re trying to encourage modes other than the car. New mapping shows graphically how people travel to work using 2011 census data, which recorded people’s usual residence location, and where they normally worked, and also asked the main mode of transport that they used. It’s by far the best available data available for looking at how travel to work varies between areas, even though there are many caveats about its accuracy.

I’ve mapped the data in a number of ways, and have recently produced a ‘traffic light’ form of mapping that shows the areas where large amounts of car travel are generated, and where there is much less. The two maps below show the relative distance driven to work, for residents (left hand map) and for each job (right hand map).

Kilometres driven per resident (left) and per job (right) in Oxford to Milton Keynes area. Green circles show low mileage and red/mauve high.

Residents near the centre of Oxford are in the lowest quartile of distance driven (green) while those in Bicester are all in the highest quartile (red and violet). While Milton Keynes fares averagely for residents (yellow and amber), for jobs it creates mileage in the highest 10% (violet). And while central Oxford seems relatively sustainable the workplaces to the South and West produce high mileages.

The maps above are part of a series with commentary relating to the ‘Oxford-Cambridge Expressway’, a sort of outer M25 proposed which would come with 1 million extra homes built before 2050. You can interpret the maps in different ways, but to me they show that the problems of locating those homes and related jobs in a way that could be described as sustainable are immense. Oxford and Cambridge are unique in their makeup and ‘traditions’ of cycling, and it’s difficult to replicate that elsewhere. The maps can be viewed on my website. The pages take some time to load and are pretty useless on a phone, due to their complexity and scale – sorry about that if you’re a phone user!

You can remove the introduction and then view different layers of the map, and read about the patterns shown. More general national mapping can be found at the link at the bottom right, or here.

The Oxford-Cambridge maps show the difficulties for the proposed road and building, but other areas of the country show different issues. London’s well developed public transport network, large scale and centralised jobs (in conjunction with the impossibility of high numbers reaching the centre by car) shows that low driver mileage can be achieved there. Other major conurbations don’t fare so well, with strong centres and strong economy being a key issue. Residents in most large cities use cars less, but jobs in centres such as Leeds and Manchester with strong economies produce much more car travel than Liverpool, Hull, Blackpool and others. But it tends to be those with weaker economies and least developed public transport and least centrality that have the highest rate of travel by modes other than driving, active modes and public transport (which mainly means high levels of travel as a car passenger).

My next stage of this work will be to measure how factors such as distance from motorway, and relative concentration of jobs affects driver mileage, which may help provide better explanations for some of the ‘surprises’ in the maps. At the moment, from this mapping, it’s difficult to say how new development and sustainable travel can be synergetic – it just helps show where not to locate. Hopefully more analysis will provide some pointers as to where it should be.

Guest blog by Gordon Stokes, Visiting Research Associate at the Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford